Breakthrough of Stem Cell

February 24, 2009 at 5:04 am Leave a comment

Stem cell breakthrough promises arthritis ‘cure’
Introduction
A. Summary
Scientists are predicting a “cure” for arthritis within the next decade after they successfully grew human cartilage from a patient’s own stem cells for the first time. The breakthrough paves the way for cartilage transplant operations for more than two million people who suffer the most severe form of the bone disease, osteoarthritis, which leaves them unable to walk and in constant pain.
Experts from the University of Bristol took just over a month to grow a half-inch piece of cartilage using stem cells, which are self-renewing and have the ability to grow into blood, bones or organs.
Crucially, the new technique is expected to overcome problems of transplant rejection because the patient’s own cells would be used to create the cartilage. This would also avoid the ethical concerns over the use of human embryos in stem cell research. The most potent stem cells are found in human embryos, but a lesser supply can also be found in adult bone marrow.
Tests have shown that the laboratory-grown cartilage is of better quality than any previous attempts at tissue engineering. This means it should be “springy” enough to work in a knee joint.
Transplant trials on NHS osteoarthritis patients are expected within two years, following the development by Prof Anthony Hollander and his team at Southmead Hospital in Bristol.
Prof Hollander, the Arthritis Research Campaign professor of rheumatology and tissue engineering, has devised a way of making adult bone marrow stem cells grow into cartilage within 40 days in the laboratory. The professor now expects to grow several lumps of cartilage from the same patient, enough to make a transplant possible. Their aim within a decade is to develop a cure for arthritis, and have taken an important step down that road. This is the first time that proper cartilage has been grown in a test tube.
There have been other attempts but tests showed that the cartilage grown was not great quality, as there has been a tendency for cells to calcify and for it to become too fibrous.
It’s unbelievable because this cartilage does not appear to have those problems. The next step will be to grow several lumps and try to piece together enough to provide a workable transplant for an area devastated by osteoarthritis. In osteoarthritis, cartilage – which acts as a shock absorber wherever bone meets bone – becomes damaged, erodes away and the underlying bone becomes thicker.
To grow cartilage, scientists took stem cells from bone marrow and placed them in a nutrient-rich solution, containing growth factors to help to boost cell development. The cells were grown up a tiny scaffold made of polyglycolic acid, which is the same material used to make dissolvable, surgical stitches. This means that once the cartilage is transplanted, the scaffold should melt away. Stem cell is a step further in the hope that it will bring relief for the two million people badly affected by osteoarthritis.

B. Advantages & Disadvantages
– Advantages
1. Technology of stem cell can be good step development for the next medication and research
2. Give chance for osteoarthritis patient to relieve their suffer
3. Encourage researcher to find more new treatment.
– Disadvantages
1. The cost is expensive, need much money
2. There will be happen risk for differentiate cell (abnormal cell division and differentiation)
3. Researcher still looking for side effect for using stem cell. Stem cell has minimal side effect that still doubt by researcher.
C. Application in Indonesia
Government has been formed Stem cell team that has duty for give help and donation of stem cell in Indonesia. Stem cell team was formed based on SK Menkes RI No.1092 Th. 2007. This organization ordered under Health Ministry and the other organization that was registered as a member, include National of Bioetika..
Each country has different ideas about Stem Cell toward medication method of Stem Cell. Since 1980’ Stem cell has been used for medical therapy, but it can’t permit for reproduction. This method has been used in Indonesia is bone marrow transplantation for leukemia and Stem cell hearth transplantation. And then, Stem cell central that has been built in Indonesia such us Kanker Dharmais Hospital, Cipto Mangunkusumo, Dr. Karyadi Hospital, and PT Cordlife. In 30 september 2006, Siti Fadlilah ,Health Ministry, has been authenticated the first private Bank Tali Pusat, that is PT Cordlife Indonesia is joint venture between Cordlife Ltd Singapore and PT Kalbe Farma Tbk.

D. Opinion
My opinion about stem cell is it is a wonderful discovery medicine for orthopedic especially bone disease “osteoarthritis”. Even though, it still has contravention in medical science and religion area but it is useful chance for osteoarthritis patient.
For the research article, this is good article. This offers some hope where there has been none. Based on research article, Stem cell is parent nucleus that can be found in various source such us, bone marrow, periphery blood, umbilical cord or embryo. Parent nucleus has big potential in medical world to be used as cell therapy in various degenerate disease and cancer that difficult recovery, such us diabetic, infarct myocardium, stroke, Parkinson disease and osteoarthritis.
Unfortunately, it’s very expensive today, just high class that can use this medication method. So it’s must develop cheap technology but effective for every class especially low community that have osteoarthritis. Stem cell has big good things beside cure, which is never used up. The Scientist must develop to the degenerative and genetic disease that can be found in community.
E. References
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1505734/Stem-cell-breakthrough-promises-arthritis-‘cure’.html http://www.technologyindonesia.com/news.php?page_mode=detail&id=569

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